Methods A stratified cross-sectional design was used to insure age, gender, and ethnic (Black vs. White) balance with respect to three main drug use categories (arm injectors only; arm+leg injectors; non-injectors). Participants (N=640) were obtained from10 methadone maintenance treatment centers in the
Results: PAD was identified in16.7% of participants; the mean (SD) ankle brachial index value for persons with PAD was 0.84 (0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis found sex (women) (OR = 2.10) history of ever smoking cigarettes (OR = 5.16), years of smoking cigarettes (OR = 1.60 per 10 years smoking) and having a positive attitude toward physical activities/exertion (OR = 0.63) made significant contributions to the predictors for PAD controlling other background and risk variables. Conclusions: A high risk of PAD is present in persons in drug treatment and should be assessed. Smoking cessation should be encouraged. Funding: National Institute of Nursing Research/National Institute of Health (NINR/NIH), R01 NR009264.