Perceived Barriers and Home Care Needs When Adapting to a Fecal Ostomy A Phenomenological Study

Burcu Cengiz, Public Health Nursing, Dokuz Eylul University Nursing Faculty, İzmir, Turkey and Zuhal Bahar, Koc University Nursing Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine perceived barriers to adaptation to life with a fecal ostomy based on the Health Belief Model(HBM) and to reveal home care needs related to these perceptions. DESIGN: Phenomenological study. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Twelve participants undergoing ileostomy or colostomy within 3 months of data collection participated in the study. Participants were recruited from Stomatherapy Outpatient Clinic of Dokuz Eylül University Hospital. Their mean age was 54.41 ± 19.14 years (mean ± SD). Eight(67%) underwent ostomy surgery 2 to 3 months prior to study participation; 9(75%) underwent stoma surgery for treatment of colorectal cancer, 5(42%) had a temporary stoma, and 8 also received chemotherapy for the management of an underlying malignancy. METHODS: A semistructured interview form was used to collect data, and obtained data were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Questions were based on the HBM and were directed at identifying challenges to adaptation to life at home and home care needs in patients with stoma. RESULTS: Inductive content analysis identifi ed 4 main themes: “restriction of daily life activities”; “factors affecting adaptation to stoma”; “need for health professionals”; and “emotional effects.” The theme, need for health professionals, was expressed by the highest number of the participants. Respondents explained that services from ostomy nurse specialists should begin in hospital and continue into home. Participants suggested that ostomy nurses are needed to improve self-care skills via telephone contact and home visits. They also expressed need for nursing interventions for the management of adverse effects associated with chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals experience physical, mental, and social barriers when adapting to live with a new stoma and when receiving chemotherapy for underlying cancer. Additional services from ostomy nurses are needed to aid patients when adapting to these challenges.
KEY WORDS: Health Belief Model, Home care, Stoma .