Meta-analyses of Pressure Ulcer Incidence and Prevalence in the Intensive Care Population

Tara Konicki, PhD, RN and Misty Richmond, PhD, PMHNP-BC, College of Nursing and Health, Wright State University, Dayton, OH
Pressure ulcers in the intensive-care unit setting add to the cost of care in this critically ill population. Prevalence and incidence in individual studies have been found to vary widely. The objective of this analysis was to determine the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers in the intensive-care unit patient population. Non-experimental research studies were included in the meta-analyses. Data were extracted by two researchers and differences were resolved by consensus. The random-effects model was used for all analyses. Meta-analysis of 26 studies resulted in an incidence of 13.5%, 95% CI 0.10-0.179. Meta-analysis of 8 incidence studies begun 2007 and later had an incidence rate of 16.5%, 95% CI 0.90-0.28. The prevalence rate after analysis of 3 studies was 20.3%, 95% CI 0.09-0.40. Significant heterogeneity was present in all studies. The presence of heterogeneity was expected, due to the various types of intensive-care unit settings, the varying levels of patient acuity, and the different sets of inclusion criteria across studies.